Audre Lorde On The Transformation of Silence

In recognition of Black History Month, Transformation Publications will present poems, essays, and other artistic creations by Black artists, musicians, and writers.

Audre Lorde  (February 18, 1934 – November 17, 1992)

Audre Lorde  (February 18, 1934 – November 17, 1992)

The Transformation of Silence Into Language and Action by Audre Lorde

I have come to believe over and over again that what is most important to me must be spoken, made verbal and shared, even at the risk of having it bruised or misunderstood.  That the speaking profits me, beyond any other effect.

I was forced to look upon myself and my living with a harsh and urgent clarity that has left me still shaken but much stronger.  Some of what I experienced during that time has helped elucidate for me much of what I feel concerning the transformation of silence into language and action.

In becoming forcibly and essentially aware of my mortality, and of what I wished and wanted for my life, however short it might be, priorities and omissions became strongly etched in a merciless light, and what I most regretted were my silences.  Of what had I ever been afraid?  To question or to speak as I believed could have meant pain, or death.  But we all hurt in so many different ways, all the time, and pain will either change or end. Death, on the other hand, is the final silence.  And that might be coming quickly now, without regard for whether I had ever spoken what needed to be said, or had only betrayed myself into small silences, while I planned someday to speak, or waited for someone else's words.

I was going to die, if not sooner then later, whether or not I had ever spoken myself.  My silences had not protected me.  Your silence will not protect you.

What are the words you do not yet have?  What do you need to say?  What are the tyrannies you swallow day by day and attempt to make your own, until you will sicken and die of them, still in silence?  Perhaps for some of you here today, I am the face of one of your fears.  Because I am a woman, because I am Black, because I am lesbian, because I am myself -- a Black woman warrior poet doing my work -- come to ask you, are you doing yours?

And of course I am afraid, because the transformation of silence into language and action is an act of self-revelation, and that always seems fraught with danger.  But my daughter, when I told her of our topic and my difficulty with it, said, "Tell them about how you're never really a whole person if you remain silent, because there's always that one little piece inside you that wants to be spoken out, and if you keep ignoring it, it gets madder and madder and hotter and hotter, and if you don't speak it out one day it will just up and punch you in the mouth from the inside.

In the cause of silence, each of us draws the face of her own fear -- fear of contempt, of censure, of some judgment, or recognition, of challenge, of annihilation.  But most of all, I think, we fear the visibility without which we cannot truly live.

And that visibility which makes us most vulnerable is that which also is the source of our greatest strength.  Because the machine will try to grind you into dust anyway, whether or not we speak.  We can sit in our corners mute forever while our sisters and our selves are wasted, while our children are distorted and destroyed, while our earth is poisoned; we can sit in our safe corners mute as bottles, and we will still be no less afraid.

Each of us is here now because in one way or another we share a commitment to language and to the power of language, and to the reclaiming of that language which has been made to work against us.  In the transformation of silence into language and action, it is vitally necessary for each one of us to establish or examine her function in that transformation and to recognize her role as vital within that transformation.

For those of us who write, it is necessary to scrutinize not only the truth of what we speak, but the truth of that language by which we speak it.  For others, it is to share and spread also those words that are meaningful to us.  But primarily for us all, it is necessary to teach by living and speaking those truths which we believe and know beyond understanding. Because in this way alone can we survive, by taking part in a process of life that is creative and continuing, that is growth.

And it is never without fear -- of visibility, of the harsh light of scrutiny and perhaps judgment, of pain, of death.  But we have lived through all of those already, in silence, except death.  And I remind myself all the time now that if I were to have been born mute, or had maintained an oath of silence my whole life long for safety, I would still have suffered, and I would still die. It is very good for establishing perspective.

We can learn to work and speak when we are afraid in the same way we have learned to work and speak when we are tired. For we have been socialized to respect fear more than our own needs for language and definition, and while we wait in silence for that final luxury of fearlessness, the weight of that silence will choke us.

The fact that we are here and that I speak these words is an attempt to break that silence and bridge some of those differences between us, for it is not difference which immobilizes us, but silence.  And there are so many silences to be broken.

 

 (Originally delivered at the Modern Language Association's "Lesbian and Literature Panel," Chicago, Illinois, December 28, 1977.  First published in Sinister Wisdom 6,  1978 and The Cancer Journals, Spinsters Ink, San Francisco, 1980.

Learn more about Audre Lorde in A Litany For Survival: the Life and Work of Audre Lorde here.

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Listen to N.W.A. rap version of Express Yourself here

 

 

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🎂Happy Birthday William Edward Burghardt WEB Du Bois (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) In Memoriam🌹

Miles Davis On Taking Credit

In recognition of Black History Month, Transformation Publications will present poems, essays, and other artistic creations by Black artists, musicians, and writers.

Miles Davis (May 26, 1926 – September 28, 1991)

Miles Davis (May 26, 1926 – September 28, 1991)

I hate how white people always try to take credit for something after they discover it. Like it wasn't happening before they found out about it — which most times is always late, and they didn't have nothing to do with it happening...

It’s like, how did Columbus discover America when the Indians were already here? What kind of shit is that, but white people’s shit?

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Photo Credit: “Cafe” by William H Johnson (March 18, 1901 – April 13, 1970).

 

 

 

 

 

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Listen to the Miles Davis Quartet play So What here. 

August Wilson On The Blues

In recognition of Black History Month, Transformation Publications will present poems, essays, and other artistic creations by Black artists, musicians, and writers.

August Wilson (April 27, 1945 – October 2, 2005)

August Wilson (April 27, 1945 – October 2, 2005)

Blues is the bedrock of everything I do. All the characters in my plays, their ideas and their attitudes, the stance that they adopt in the world, are all ideas and attitudes that are expressed in the blues. If all this were to disappear off the face of the earth and some people two million unique years from now would dig out this civilization and come across some blues records, working as anthropologists, they would be able to piece together who these people were, what they thought about, what their ideas and attitudes toward pleasure and pain were, all of that. All the components of culture. Just like they do with the Egyptians, they piece together all that stuff...

And all you need is the blues. So to me the blues is the book, it's the bible, it's everything. My greatest influence has been the blues. And that's a literary influence, because I think the blues is the best literature that we as black Americans have.

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Photo Credit : The Sugar Shack by Ernest Eugene Barnes Jr. (July 15, 1938 – April 27, 2009).

 

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Listen to BB King sing Why I Sing The Blues here.

 

 

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🌹Malcolm X ( (May 19, 1925 to February 21, 1965) In Memoriam🌹 

Sonny Rollins On Being Human

In recognition of Black History Month, Transformation Publications will present poems, essays, and other artistic creations by Black artists, musicians, and writers.

Sonny Rollins (September 07, 1930 -)

Sonny Rollins (September 07, 1930 -)

It’s not a matter of your intelligence or anything. You have to have a gift. Just as, I’m sure, for other professions. […] I came upon these very great and — not just great musicians, but great people. […] And I’m trying to now live my life like that. I’ve got a gift, a musical gift, fine. But I want to be a human being, a good human being. I need to always express that to young students. Everybody can have a gift. That’s a gift. But then we have to be good human beings. So that’s what it’s all about.

 

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Photo Credit: The Gitdown Hoedown by Larry Martin.

 

Listen to Sonny Rollins play Don't Stop the Carnival  here.

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🌹Frederick Douglass (February 1818 – February 20, 1895) In Memoriam🌹

Zinzi Clemmons On Writers

In recognition of Black History Month, Transformation Publications will present poems, essays, and other artistic creations by Black artists, musicians, and writers.

l never felt like I had a tribe that I could belong to without some qualification – ‘you are this, but’… That kind of experience is what makes you a writer … I think all writers are outsiders, for some reason … They’re the people who kind of stand off to one side, they’re not participating, they’re observing..

 

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Photo Credit: NoBody But Myself photographed by Tao Writer from the private collection of Melvin and Robin Jackson, ©️2017.

Note: This photograph was also the cover for my fourth publication, NoBody But Myself, What I Have To Give.

 

 

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Listen to Little Anthony & The Imperials sing I’m On The Outside Looking In here.

Toni Morrison On Letting Go

In recognition of Black History Month, Transformation Publications will present poems, essays, and other artistic creations by Black artists, musicians, and writers.

Toni Morrison (February 18, 1931 -)

Toni Morrison (February 18, 1931 -)

At some point in life the world's beauty becomes enough. You don't need to photograph, paint or to even remember it.  It is enough.  No record of it needs to be kept and you don't need someone to share it with or tell it to. When that happens — that letting go — you let go because you can.

🎂 Happy Birthday Toni Morrison (February 18, 1931 -)

 

  

  

Photo Credit: Know Your Worth! by: Salaam Muhammad

 

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Listen to Aretha Franklin sing Respect here. 

 

 

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🎂Happy Birthday Audre Lorde (February 18, 1934 – November 17, 1992) In Memoriam🌹

Langston Hughes On The Weary Blues

In recognition of Black History Month, Transformation Publications will present poems, essays, and other artistic creations by Black artists, musicians, and writers.

Langston Hughes (February 01, 1902 – May 22, 1967)

Langston Hughes (February 01, 1902 – May 22, 1967)

The Weary Blues by Langston Hughes

Droning a drowsy syncopated tune,
Rocking back and forth to a mellow croon,
     I heard a Negro play.
Down on Lenox Avenue the other night
By the pale dull pallor of an old gas light
     He did a lazy sway . . .
     He did a lazy sway . . .
To the tune o’ those Weary Blues.
With his ebony hands on each ivory key
He made that poor piano moan with melody.
     O Blues!
Swaying to and fro on his rickety stool
He played that sad raggy tune like a musical fool.
     Sweet Blues!
Coming from a black man’s soul.
     O Blues!
In a deep song voice with a melancholy tone
I heard that Negro sing, that old piano moan—
     “Ain’t got nobody in all this world,
       Ain’t got nobody but ma self.
       I’s gwine to quit ma frownin’
       And put ma troubles on the shelf.”

Thump, thump, thump, went his foot on the floor.
He played a few chords then he sang some more—
     “I got the Weary Blues
       And I can’t be satisfied.
       Got the Weary Blues
       And can’t be satisfied—
       I ain’t happy no mo’
       And I wish that I had died.”
And far into the night he crooned that tune.
The stars went out and so did the moon.
The singer stopped playing and went to bed
While the Weary Blues echoed through his head.
He slept like a rock or a man that’s dead.

 

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Photo Credit: “Madiba,” by Kadir Nelson (May 15, 1974 -).

  

 

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Listen to Wynton Marsalis play his version of the Weary Blues here.

 

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🎂Happy Birthday Huey Percy Newton (February 17, 1942 – August 22, 1989) In Memoriam🌹 

 

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On This Day, February 17, 2016, Channing Dungey became the first African-American president of ABC Entertainment Group.

Malcom X On Narrow-Mindedness

In recognition of Black History Month, Transformation Publications will present poems, essays, and other artistic creations by Black artists, musicians, and writers.

Malcom X (May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965)

Malcom X (May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965)

[I met] blonde-haired, blue-eyed men I could call my brothers, and I've seen too much of the damage narrow-mindedness can make of things, and when I return home to America, I will devote what energies I have to repairing the damage.

 

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Photo Credit: Picasso's Wives and Lovers, k Madison Moore.

 

  

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Listen to Tupac Amaru Shakur aka 2Pac sing Changes  here.

 

 

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On This Day, February 16, 1999, Testimony began in the Jasper, Texas trial of John William King. He was charged with murder in the gruesome dragging death of James Byrd Jr. King was later convicted and sentenced to death.  

Bob Herbert On Wealth

In recognition of Black History Month, Transformation Publications will present poems, essays, and other artistic creations by Black artists, musicians, and writers.

Bob Herbert (March 07, 1945 -)

Bob Herbert (March 07, 1945 -)

Overwhelming imbalances in wealth and income inevitably result in enormous imbalances of political power. So the corporations and the very wealthy continue to do well. The employment crisis never gets addressed. The wars never end. And nation-building never gets a foothold here at home.

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Photo Credit: Chain Gang, William Johnson (March 18, 1901 – April 13, 1970).

 

 

  

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Listen to the O'Jays (Walter Williams, Eric Grant and Eddie Levert)  sing For The Love of Money here.

 

   

 

 

🌹Nat King Cole (March 17, 1919 – February 15, 1965) In Memoriam🌹

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On This Day, February 15, 1982, Duke Ellington recorded Take The “A” Train. 

Nikki Giovanni On Beautiful Black Men

In recognition of Black History Month, Transformation Publications will present poems, essays, and other artistic creations by Black artists, musicians, and writers.

Nikki Giovanni (June 7, 1943 -) 

Nikki Giovanni (June 7, 1943 -) 

Beautiful Black Men by Nikki Giovanni

(With compliments and apologies to all not mentioned by name)

i wanta say just gotta say something
bout those beautiful beautiful beautiful outasight
black men
with they afros
walking down the street
is the same ol danger
but a brand new pleasure

sitting on stoops, in bars, going to offices
running numbers, watching for their whores
preaching in churches, driving their hogs
walking their dogs, winking at me
in their fire red, lime green, burnt orange
royal blue tight tight pants that hug
what i like to hug

jerry butler, wilson pickett, the impressions
temptations, mighty mighty sly
don’t have to do anything but walk
on stage
and i scream and stamp and shout
see new breed men in breed alls
dashiki suits with shirts that match
the lining that compliments the ties
that smile at the sandals
where dirty toes peek at me
and i scream and stamp and shout
for more beautiful beautiful beautiful
black men with outasight afros

Listen to Nikki Giovanni reading her poem “Beautiful Black Men” here.

Note: I had the pleasure and honor of knowing and working with Nikki during my junior and senior years at Rutgers University. I was Assistant to the Dean of Student Affairs at Livingston College, an alternative university, established by Rutgers as an urban school with a higher enrollment of minority students. It was a social experiment as a result of Black student protest throughout the state wide university system in New Jersey and the 1967 social/political uprising in Newark. We shared many long and insightful conversations on what it met to be a Black man/woman writer/human in those changing times. I am forever grateful for her presence in my life.

 

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Photo Credit: Gold medalist Tommie Smith (center) and bronze medalist John Carlos (right) showing the raised fist on the podium after the 200 m race at the 1968 Summer Olympics. (Source Wikipedia) 

 

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Listen to Roberta Flack sing her hit song Killing Me Softly With His Song here.

 

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🎂Happy Birthday Richard Allen  (February 14, 1760 – March 26, 1831) In Memoriam🌹

Ralph Ellison on Shame

In recognition of Black History Month, Transformation Publications will present poems, essays, and other artistic creations by Black artists, musicians, and writers.

Ralph Ellison (March 1, 1913– April 16, 1994)

Ralph Ellison (March 1, 1913– April 16, 1994)

I am not ashamed of my grandparents for having been slaves. I am only ashamed of myself for having at one time being ashamed.

 

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Photo Credit: The first and most identifiable image of the 18th century abolitionist movement was a kneeling African man. Source Credit here.

 

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Listen to Tyrese sing Shame here

 

 

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On This Day, February 13, 1960, Black college students begin a series of lunch counter sit-ins in Nashville, Tennessee.

LeBron James On Race

In recognition of Black History Month, Transformation Publications will present poems, essays, and other artistic creations by Black artists, musicians, and writers.

LeBron James (December 30, 1984 -) 

LeBron James (December 30, 1984 -) 

No matter how much money you have, no matter how famous you are, no matter how many people admire you, being black in America is tough.

  

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Photo Credit: Biggest Fan by Alonzo Adams.

 

 

 

  

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Listen to Donny Hathaway sing The Ghetto here.

 

 

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🎂Happy Birthday Bill Russell (February 12, 1934 -)

 

 

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On This Day, February 12, 1968, Soul on Ice by Eldridge Cleaver was published for the first time.

Tracy K Smith On Time

In recognition of Black History Month, Transformation Publications will present poems, essays, and other artistic creations by Black artists, musicians, and writers.

Tracy K Smith (April 16, 1972 -)

Tracy K Smith (April 16, 1972 -)

Solstice by Tracy K Smith

They're gassing geese outside of JFK.
Tehran will likely fill up soon with blood
The Times is getting smaller day by day.

We've learned to back away from all we say
And, more or less, agree with what we should.
Whole flocks are being gassed near JFK.

So much of what we're asked is to obey—
A reflex we'd abandon if we could.
The Times reported 19 dead today.

They're going to make the opposition pay.
(If you're sympathetic, knock on wood.)
The geese were terrorizing JFK.

Remember how they taught you once to pray?
Eyes closed, on your knees, to any god?
Sometimes, small minds seem to take the day.

Election fraud. A migratory plague.
Less and less surprises us as odd.
We dislike what they did at JFK.
Our time is brief. We dwindle by the day.

 

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Listen to Jia Tolentino reading Tracy K Smith’s poem “Solstice”  here.

 

 

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Photo Credit: ”The Lovers” by Jacob Lawrence (September 7, 1917 – June 9, 2000).

   

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Listen to Billie Holiday sing Strange Fruit here.

 

 

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On This Day, February 11, 1958, Ruth Carol Taylor was the first black woman to become a stewardess by making her initial flight.

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On This Day, February 11, 1990, Nelson Mandela was freed after 27 years in captivity.

Richard Wright On Hunger For Life

In recognition of Black History Month, Transformation Publications will present poems, essays, and other artistic creations by Black artists, musicians, and writers.

Richard Wright (September 4, 1908 – November 28, 1960)

Richard Wright (September 4, 1908 – November 28, 1960)

I would hurl words into this darkness and wait for an echo, and if an echo sounded, no matter how faintly, I would send other words to tell, to march, to fight, to create a sense of hunger for life that gnaws in us all.

  

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Photo Credit: Mother And Daughter Debra Cartwright.

 

 

 

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Listen to Eric Benét sing Poetry Girl here.

 

 

 

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🎂Happy Birthday Mary Violet Leontyne Price (February 10, 1927 -)

Tao Writer On Standing Undiminished

In recognition of Black History Month, Transformation Publications will present poems, essays, and other artistic creations by Black artists, musicians, and writers.

Tao Writer (April 17, 1948 -)

Tao Writer (April 17, 1948 -)

Stand Undiminished-The Poem by Tao Writer

Taken from my motherland in chains
to travel waters unknown by me,
to toil in soil unfamiliar to my hands.
Forced to speak a language
which does not sing.
Exploited, enslaved, whipped and hanged.
Defined in a constitution
as three fifths of a man.
I stood beside you in battle
against common foes.
I stood before you, in defiance
of your authority, fighting for my freedom,
granted by an amendment, still denied
by the common belief in my inferiority.
Is it my darkness which intimidates you?
Are you threatened by my warrior’s strength?
Do you not see the benevolent king I am?
For here, now, I stand before you, again,
not as your enemy, not yet your brother,
no longer the slave of your bidding.
Before you now stands a darker reflection of yourself.
Before you now I stand strong in body,
full of soul, completing the circle of my destiny.
Before you now,
Before you now, I Stand
Before you now, I Stand Undiminished!

 

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Photo Credit: William Henry Brooke, 1772-1860, Interior view of a room with a rotunda ceiling during an auction of slaves, artwork and goods. Courtesy of The Historic New Orleans Collection.

 

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Listen to Whitney Houston sing The Greatest Love Of All here.

 

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🎂Happy Birthday Alice Walker (February 9, 1944 -)

Harriet Tubman On Strength

In recognition of Black History Month, Transformation Publications will present poems, essays, and other artistic creations by Black artists, musicians, and writers.

Harriet Tubman  (c.1822 – March 10, 1913) 

Harriet Tubman  (c.1822 – March 10, 1913) 

Always remember,  you have within you the strength, the patience and the passion to reach for the stars and to change the world.

  

 

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Photo Credit: The Creation Of God by Harmonia Rosales.

 

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Listen to Jordin Sparks sing I Am Woman here.

 

 

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On This Day, February 08,  1915, The Birth Of A Nation, the first 12-reel film in America, directed by D. W. Griffith, starring Lillian Gish and Mae Marsh, opens at Clune's Auditorium in Los Angeles, California.

Jamaica Kincaid On Writing

In recognition of Black History Month, Transformation Publications will present poems, essays, and other artistic creations by Black artists, musicians, and writers.

Jamaica Kincaid (May 25, 1949 -)

Jamaica Kincaid (May 25, 1949 -)

When I start to write something, I suppose I want it to change me, to make me into something not myself. And while I'm doing it, I really have the feeling that this time, at the end of it, I will be other than myself. Of course, every time I end a book, I look down at myself and I'm just the same. I'm always disappointed that I'm just the same, but not enough to never do it again! I get right back up and I start something else, and I think this time - this time - I really will be transformed into something other than this tawdry, ordinary thing, sitting on the bed and drinking cold coffee. When I write a book, I hope to be beyond mortal by the time I'm finished.

 

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Photo Credit: Mother and Child photographed by Tao Writer from the private collection of Melvin and Robin Jackson, ©️2017.

 

  

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Listen to Johnny Hartman sing and John Coltrane playing tenor sax on Dedicated to You here.

 

   

 

 

🎂Happy Birthday  James “Eubie” Blake  (February 7, 1887 – February 12, 1983) In Memoriam🌹

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On This Day, February 07, 1964, Cassius Clay converts to Islam, and is renamed Muhammad Ali.

Maya Angelou On Phenomenal Women

In recognition of Black History Month, Transformation Publications will present poems, essays, and other artistic creations by Black artists, writers, and musicians.

Maya Angelou (April 04,1928 - May 28, 2014)  

Maya Angelou (April 04,1928 - May 28, 2014)

 

Phenomenal Woman by Maya Angelou

Pretty women wonder where my secret lies. 
I'm not cute or built to suit a fashion model's size
But when I start to tell them, 
They think I'm telling lies. 
I say, 
It's in the reach of my arms
The span of my hips, 
The stride of my step, 
The curl of my lips. 
I'm a woman
Phenomenally. 
Phenomenal woman, 
That's me. 

I walk into a room
Just as cool as you please, 
And to a man, 
The fellows stand or
Fall down on their knees. 
Then they swarm around me, 
A hive of honey bees. 
I say, 
It's the fire in my eyes, 
And the flash of my teeth, 
The swing in my waist, 
And the joy in my feet. 
I'm a woman
Phenomenally. 
Phenomenal woman, 
That's me. 

Men themselves have wondered
What they see in me. 
They try so much
But they can't touch
My inner mystery. 
When I try to show them
They say they still can't see. 
I say, 
It's in the arch of my back, 
The sun of my smile, 
The ride of my breasts, 
The grace of my style. 
I'm a woman

Phenomenally. 
Phenomenal woman, 
That's me. 

Now you understand
Just why my head's not bowed. 
I don't shout or jump about
Or have to talk real loud. 
When you see me passing
It ought to make you proud. 
I say, 
It's in the click of my heels, 
The bend of my hair, 
the palm of my hand, 
The need of my care, 
'Cause I'm a woman
Phenomenally. 
Phenomenal woman, 
That's me.
 

Listen to Dr. Maya Angelou reading her poem Phenomenal Woman here.

 

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Photo Credit: African Queen by Marlene Page, Livingston College, (1969). The African Queen is representative of all Black Women and has occupied a place of honor in every home I have lived over the last fifty years.

  

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Listen to Carlos Santana play and Alicia Keys play and sing Black Magic Woman here. 

 

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🎂Happy Birthday Robert Nesta Marley, (February 06, 1945 – May 11, 1981) In Memoriam🌹

 

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On This Day, February 06, 1956, University of Alabama suspends African-American student Autherine Lucy claiming that it can no longer provide for her safety.

Lyndon B Johnson On Race

In recognition of Black History Month, Transformation Publications will present poems, essays, and other artistic creations by Black artists, musicians, and writers.

Lyndon B Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973)  

Lyndon B Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973)

 

We believe all men are entitled to the blessings of liberty. Yet millions are being deprived of those blessings because of the color of their skin. The reasons are deeply imbedded in history and tradition and the nature of man. We can understand - without rancor or hatred - how this happened, but it cannot continue. Our constitution forbids it. The principles of our freedom forbid it. Morality forbids it. And [now] the law forbids it.

Note: These words were spoken by then President Lyndon B Johnson after the passage and ratification of the 1964 Civil Rights Act on July 02, 1964, but as history would prove it had little lasting impact. The words of politicians are shrouded in lies, not truth. The current President, amplifies these lies every time he speaks.

 

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Photo Credit: The Suspicious Patriot by Demar Douglas.

 

 

  

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Listen to Kanye West sing Everything I Am here.

 

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🎂Happy Birthday Trayvon Benjamin Martin (February 5, 1995 – February 26, 2012) In Memoriam🌹

Martin L King On Satisfaction

In recognition of Black History Month, Transformation Publications will present poems, essays, and other artistic creations by Black artists, musicians, and writers.

Martin L King (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968)

Martin L King (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968)

No, no, we are not satisfied and will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like water and righteousness like a mighty stream.

 

  

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Photo Credit: Hank Willis Thomas. Raise Up, 2014.

 

   

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Listen to Woopi Goldberg et al from the film Sister Act II singing O’ Happy Day here.

 

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🎂Happy Birthday Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) In Memoriam🌹

 

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On This Day, February 04, 1822, free American Blacks settle in Liberia, West Africa.